The ABS/ESP/Cruise Control systems are all related by the sensors that provide information to them. The two sensors that I know about (there may be more, not sure) are the wheel speed sensors and the steering angle sensor (in the steering column). Under normal operating conditions, the various systems use the information provided by one or more of the sensors to function correctly.
ABS and cruise rely primarily on the wheel speed sensors and the ESP relies on both wheel speed and steering angle. Under certain conditions, the information provided by the sensors is too far outside of "normal" and the computer shuts down all three systems until the problem is fixed.
From personal experience ('09 JKU by the way), I took a hard knock on a trail once. No physical damage was done but it knocked the alignment off by a considerable amount. While driving straight down the road, my steering wheel was off to the left by about 90 degrees. All things (vehicle speed and reported steering angle) being considered by the computer, it saw this as abnormal (possibly even impossible) so it assumed a fault condition was present and shut down all three systems. The following day I had an alignment done and the problem went away with no ill effects or replacement of any parts.
As far as what caused yours, it would probably be pretty much impossible to pinpoint exactly but, considering the speed at which the computer reads the information from the sensors, any instant during the slipping and sliding you described could have returned information that the computer saw as abnormal and shut all the systems down and since there was no damage to any of the systems, once you shut the Jeep off and restarted it, the computer cleared what had happened during its last run cycle.
Sorry for the long winded reply but that's the only way I could think to explain the situation.
Also, on a side note, the JK's are loaded with more sensors than any other Wrangler in production history but the engineers designed the sensor systems with a fail safe limp mode (I believe this is true for all monitored systems). Barring catastrophic failure of a monitored system, the computer will go into limp mode to allow you to get to a repair shop or back home.