They would still turn. Everything is still turning because it is being driven when you engage 4WD. If the hub is not functioning there will be nothing at the tire to engage with the axle shafts when they are turning. Take the hubs off, inspect, clean and lightly grease. This is very easy to do and would be the first place to start.
It could be possible that when you jacked it up and turned the tire the axle shaft did turn because of the lack of resistance with the Jeep in the air.
On my 76' sometimes the lever does not go all the way into low the first time. It appears to be in the right spot but seems to fall into a false 2WD low only driving the rear wheels. I'm sure you probably pulled it pretty hard but if not try to really pull it hard into 4WD low.
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BDS Springs, MetalCloak Arms, Fox Shocks, Warn Winch, Savvy Ft Bumper, Antirock, GenRight Fenders, GR8 Top, 35" Pittbulls, 5.13's, Revolution Axle Shafts, LS-III, 4L80e
'76 CJ-7, 33" Swampers, 6-Point Cage, 4-Speed, Dana 300 Twin Stick