Whoo boy, you been bubbafied!
1. Yes, the PCV valve goes to a manifold vacuum source on the carb. The other side goes to you canister purge port.
2. That part will plug into your air filter housing. Well, maybe not the one you have, but the OEM housing anyway.
3. That's your air injection tubes, part of the original emissions equipment on your CJ. A previous owner bisected and pinched those. If you're in an emissions-free area, I'd leave it as is and focus on some other aspects of your engine for the moment.
4. Dunno, but I'm guessing it's been bubbafied.
5. That's a mount for your throttle control bracket. It's just a bracket that helped align your throttle cable to the carb, so it was a straight pull when you hit the gas.
6. I think that's also part of your air injection system...or maybe EGR. Not supposed to be wide open, but chances are it's been hacked somewhere else to compensate. More info from other members soon.
7. That connects to the top bolt securing your radiator to the grill. It should have a clip on it that will allow you to tack it under the bolt.
8. Could be. That ring connects to a duct that collects hot air from around your exhaust manifold. Its purpose is to provide warm air during warm up when the environmental air isn't warm enough. There's probably a vacuum source on the other side that closes the flapper when your engine is warm enough, at which point you'll revert to cold environmental air. The engine runs best when the air temp/engine temp is in harmony and the fuel vaporizes effectively. Not too cold so it pools, and not so hot that it's too vaporized.
Good luck, you ain't the first who's had to tackle this sort of hack job