It would work fine strength wise, but the long tail shaft would not fit well (much too long), it won't bolt to the transfer case, and the first gear is high for off road, IMO, (especially if the axles are not geared to the tire size). Making the jeep tail shaft, output shaft housing, and internal gears work with this case could possibly be done but it won't be cheap or easy.
I would check into the Chevy, WC, T-5, 4wd, truck variant first though; you need to be certain of the first gear ratio (most were NOT 4:1), check the output spline count, diameter and length and you may have to clock the case to get it in the right place. I have considered this swap but not deeply.
...a well prepped, well driven, vehicle should do well in any terrain, including the highway.
Carburetors became obsolete during the last century... do what ever it takes to get fuel injection...It makes bigger grins off road.