Once an engine has been turned upside down, oil gathers and seeps around the piston rings into the combustion chamber and eventually flow into the intake. I doubt you damaged anything on your attempted start up due to the fact that it "wouldn't even turn over". Which leads me to believe that the cylinder was fully filled with oil, saving you in the long run. The starter motor will not have enough power on it's own to bend valves in my experience. Follow the aforementioned steps to clear the cylinder of oil, clean the plugs, and also refill the crankcase with oil.
Heres a more relevant question: At the point that the jeep was turned over, how long did it run? Did you physically turn it off by way of the key?